India is one of the largest expanding economies having high future potential. The high economic and population growth rates are accompanied by an increase in the standard of living and a huge rise of energy and water demand as well as soaring emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2
. Much of this economic and corresponding social development is expected to take place in rural areas. In consequence, provision of clean and sustainable water to the rural population becomes increasingly crucial. At the same time it is crucial that this water is produced by environmentally friendly methods, e.g. using renewable energy resources and energy-efficient technologies. Rural India has more than 800 million people residing in about 1.42 million habitations spread over 15 diverse ecological regions. Groundwater is the major source of water in India with 85% of the population dependent on it. The health burden of poor water quality is enormous. It is estimated that around 37.7 million Indians are affected by water borne diseases annually, 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhoea alone and 73 million working days are lost due to waterborne diseases each year. The resulting economic burden is estimated at 0 million a year. Hence in India access to safe water is regarded as the primary factor responsible for limiting development. The average availability of water is reducing steadily with the growing population and it is estimated that by 2020 India will become a water stressed nation. Therefore the improvement and extension of water treatment remains an important and necessary objective of the Indian government.
In addition, volume and the quality of such industrial effluents in India is a matter of serious concern. There is a growing need for low footprint and energy efficient technologies for effluent treatment aiming at zero liquid discharge.
Water Technology Division is mandated to contribute significantly in research and development leading to practical application (Lab to land) in the field of water treatment, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse with special emphasis in development of new generation ceramic membranes and ceramic polymer composite membranes leading to application of such membranes for water treatment, wastewater treatment and reuse.